Baterías GEL Sonnenschein A400

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1. Section 1
2. Section 2: Capacity
3. Section 3: Nominal Voltage
4. Section 4: Discharge
5. Section 5
6. Section 6: Open Circuit Voltage
7. Section 7: Series and Parallel connection
8. Section 8: Permissible ripple current
9. Section 9: Application
10. Section 10: Service life
11. Section 11: Cycle Endurance
12. Section 12: Self - discharge
13. Section 13: Internal resistance
14. Section 14: The dryfit series

Section 1

1.1 Chemical Reaction

The electrochemical reactions in a lead acid battery when discharged can be easily described with the following formula:

  • Negative Plate: Pb + S042 -> PbSO4 + 2e-
  • Positive Plate: PbO2 + 4 H'+ S042- + 2 e- PbSO4 + 2e-
  • Positive Plate: PbO2 + 4 H'+ S042- + 2 e- -> PbSO4 + 2 H20
  • Total: Pb + PbO2 + 2 H2S04 -> 2 PbSO4 + 2 H20

This reaction is reversible and when charged runs in the opposite direction to the above arrow.


1.2 Valve Regulated Technology for Lead-Acid Batteries

Main Characteristics

  • Immobilised Electrolyte
  • Pb-Ca-Sn-alloy

Valve regulated lead-acid batteries are distinguished by the immobilised electrolyte and the vented casing. Each battery cell has a valve through which any resulting hydrogen gas (due to excess pressure in the cell) can be released (typical value: 100 mbar , 114 PSI). The valve closes airtight to external pressures. After release of the hydrogen the valve closes again and prevents 02 entering the cell.

The sealed lead-acid batteries are maintenance free for three reasons:

  • The Pb-Ca-Sn alloy guarantees the mechanical stability of the plates and increases the system gassing voltage to high values.
  • The electrolyte is immobilised
  • By closing the system with a valve, the released oxygen can recombine and reduce the production of hydrogen.

The electrolyte is immobilised either in a gel or by absorption of the electrolyte in a glass fibre separator. This is the AGM (= Absorbed Glass Mat) technology. The electrolyte in the dryfit batteries is immobilised in a gel.


1.3 Plates

Dryfit batteries of the series A 200, A 300, A 400, A 500, A 700 and0GiV contain grid plates. These gravity cast lead grids, produced for positive and negative plates, are pasted with a lead oxide paste, cured and then formed. The positive plates for the series A 600 are tubular plates for which the dry raw material (powder) is vibrated into polyester gauntlets. The plates are then cured and formed.

  • Active negative plate substance: Spongy lead.
  • Active positive plate substance: Lead dioxide.


1.4 Separator

The separator separates the positive and negative plates mechanically and electrically from one another. It must not only guarantee a high porosity to allow electrolyte acceptance and ion migration, but it must also prevent short circuits.


1.5 Electrolyte Gel System

The electrolyte in the dryfit batteries is immobilised in a gel (sulphuric acid: H2S04). The gel is a mixture of sulphuric acid, water and SiO2. The gel system also offers the possibility of varying the components and to include certain additives for the cycle stability.


1.6 Water Loss and Recombination

When the battery is fully recharged water decomposition takes place causing water loss. In the valve regulated lead-acid battery the water decomposition is almost fully compensated by the recombination of the oxygen on the negative plates. This oxygen recombination is made possible by the immobilised electrolyte.

As the speed of diffusion of oxygen into sulphuric acid is very low, there is hardly any recombination in a conventional lead-acid battery. However, in batteries with the gel electrolyte system channels are formed through with the oxygen (which forms on the positive plate) can migrate to the negative plate without any interference. The dryfit system electrolyte reserve is regulated so that the service life is not influenced by the water loss.


1.7 Casing

The dryfit batteries are available with the following casing material:

  • A 200, A 300, A 400 and A 500 Standard material : up to 16 Ah : Acryinitrile-butadiene-styrene-copolymer (ABS) for 20 - 200 Ah : Polypropylene (PP) Both materials are classified with normal flammability (UL94-HB).

As special type up to 16 Ah : Acryinitrile-butadienestyrene-copolymer (ABS) (UL94-VO) for 20 - 200 Ah : Polypropylene (PP) (U L 94-V2)

  • 0GiV: Standard material Polypropylene (PP) (UL 94 HB)
  • A600,A60OWEand A 700: Standard material :Styrene-acryinitrile-copolymer (SAN) (UL 94 HB)

ABS UL 94-VO on request.

Further information on this point can be found in the Standards IEC 707 and VDE 0304, Part 3.

battexpl.gif (73447 bytes)
Fig. 1 : Exploded view of valve regulated lead - acid battery with grid plates.


Section 2: Capacity

For the series A 200, A 300, A 400 and A 500 the nominal capacity is given for discharge at the 20 hour rate.

Discharge with constant current for the period of 20 hours corresponds to CN. The final discharge voltage UE with which the discharge is terminated is 1.75 V/cell.

  • I20 = C20 / 20 h

(see also DIN 43539, Parts 1 and 5)

  • All discharge currents are given in multiples Of I20.

For the series A 600, A 700 and 0GiV the nominal capacity is given for discharge at the 10 hour rate. The final discharge voltage UE for the nominal capacity C10 is 1.8 V/cell.

  • I10 = C10 / 1 0 h

The nominal capacity of solar batteries is given at the 100 hour rate, C100 (final discharge voltage 1.85 V/cell) and the series A 500 C nominal capacity is given at the 5 hour rate, C5 (final voltage 1.7 V/cell).

The capacity of valve regulated lead-acid batteries depends on the temperature and the output current (cf. fig. 2).

Discharge within the electrolyte-freezing zone could lead to destruction of the battery.

The final discharge voltage and discharge times, as well as the characteristic currents can be taken from the discharge curves in the brochures on the respective series. The discharge curve for the A 500 is given below as an example (cf. fig. 5).

With currents lower than I20 or I10 the battery output can exceed the nominal capacity. With currents higher than I20 the battery output is lower than the nominal capacity.

CapvTemp.gif (20998 bytes)
Fig. 2 : Capacity according to the ambient
temperature for A500 series.

CapvI.gif (22386 bytes)
Fig. 3 : Output capacity in relation to discharge current.

Section 3: Nominal Voltage

The cell nominal voltage UN is a fixed value. The nominal battery voltage results from the number of cells and the nominal cell voltage (2 V).


Section 4: Discharge

4.1 Final Discharge Voltage

The final discharge voltage is specified as the value below which the voltage must not fall when discharge occurs at the respective current. If the battery is discharged further, (i.e. the battery voltage is lower than the final discharge voltage), the area of deep discharge is entered. The final discharge voltage is normally given in V/cell and depends on the discharge current.

  • UE (battery) = n . UE (cell)

N = number of cells (battery nominal voltage divided by 2 volts)


4.2 Discharge Current

The discharge current in multiples n I20 or I10 for a 1X, current can be determined using the following formula:

n =  1X . 20 h or  n = 1X. .10 h
          C20                  C10

The following maximum discharge currents are stated in the series brochures for the dryfit batteries :

  • The given maximum battery load is the maximum discharge current for continuous output.
  • The given maximum current for 5 sec is used for dimensioning the battery fuse.


4.3 Depth of Discharge

The capacity taken from the battery is termed as the depth of discharge. For example, if 80% of the nominal capacity is used from the battery then the depth of discharge is also 80%.

The maximum permitted depth of discharge depends on the level of the discharge current and the temperature.


4.4 State of Charge

An approximate determination of the state of discharge by measuring the open-circuit voltage is possible with a tolerance of about 15% (cf. Open circuit voltage, fig. 4).


4.5 Deep Discharge

The battery enters the deep discharge zone when :

  • discharge is continued below the given point of final discharge voltage, e.g. when continuous loads are not switched off during laid-up periods.
  • the battery regenerates due to intervals during discharge so that when the final discharge voltage is reached the depth of discharge is too low.

All data for deep discharge refers to single batteries. With a series of blocks or cells different behaviour may occur with respect to the depth of discharge.

In accordance with DIN 4353 9, Part 5, the deep discharge test is defined as follows : A battery having at least its nominal capacity is bridged with a load resistance. The load resistance is selected so that the discharge current with a cell voltage of 2V/cell lies in the range between 2. IN and the maximum permissible discharge current. The battery is stored at room temperature for 30 days. At the end of the storage period the battery is charged for 48 hours. The following capacity test must show a capacity of over 75%.

  • After this recharge dryfit batteries reach between 90 and 100% of their nominal capacity.

During the discharge of lead-acid batteries the acid density decreases giving a low conductivity for deep discharged batteries. This effect is compensated for in dryfit batteries by additives to the electrolyte which increase conductivity. A surplus volume in the plates is formed by increased lead sulphate formation, which represents a mechanical load for the system.

dryfit batteries are constructed to withstand the increased load largely without damage.

Deep discharge should be avoided.

Sulphation of the plates con also occur if the batteries are discharged with discharge currents < 0,2 . I20. The batteries can then only be charged with a suitable charge process e.g. a charge with the IUI-characteristic (cf. fig. 8).


4.6 Discharge Voltage

The discharge voltage is the battery voltage during the discharge process. As an example figure 5 shows the discharge curves for various discharge currents for the A 500. The diagram shows the time during which the respective current can be drawn, the battery discharge voltage and the final discharge voltage at the discharge current.

OCVolt.gif (25688 bytes)
Fig. 4 : Typical Open Circuit voltage in dependence
of the state of charge.

IvVe.gif (47211 bytes)
Fig. 5 : Discharge curves A 500


Section 5

Dryfit batteries can be charged with the most simple recharging methods.


5.1 Charging Characteristic

Constant Voltage Charging

Fig 6 U Characteristic
Fig. 6 U-Characteristic

The battery limits the charge current when under constant voltage charge the easiest kind of charge for dryfit batteries. The battery lowers the charge current with increasing charge level.

  • dryfit batteries are generally charged with constant voltage.


IU-characteristic Charging

tecfig7.tif (160251 bytes)
Fig. 7 IU-Characteristic

The IU characteristic is the most suitable characteristic for charging dryfit batteries and for valve regulated lead-acid accumulators. It is also recommended for valve regulated lead-acid batteries. The battery is first charged with constant current until the recommended charge voltage is reached. The voltage is then maintained constant and the battery limits the charge current as with the U-characteristic.


IUI-characteristic Charging

tecfig8.tif (153659 bytes)
Fig. 8 IUI-Characteristic

For applications in cycle operation, where a maximum charging time of 16 hours must be guaranteed, the IUI-characteristic charging is recommended.

The IUI-characteristic is an extension to the IU-characteristic. When the current reduces to a certain value, this current is constantly charged until the charging equipment is switched off.

Here the following recommendations must be adhered to :

I1 : 2 - 6 . 120

U1 : see selection table p. 17

I2 0.24 . I20

*Switch-off after a maximum of 4 h.


Fully charged condition

The battery is fully charged when the residual charge current does not change within 2 hours.


5.2 Charging Voltage

The charging voltage is determined by the recommendation given by the manufacturer for each battery type.

tecfig9.tif (163444 bytes)
Fig. 9 A200/300 charging.
tecfig12.tif (161246 bytes)
Fig. 12 A500C Charging.
tecfig10.tif (163526 bytes)
Fig. 10 A400 charging
tecfig13.tif (159012 bytes)
Fig. 13 A600, A700, OGiV Charging.
tecfig11.tif (164550 bytes)
Fig. 11 A500 Charging
tecfig14.tif (159649 bytes)
Fig. 14 Heavy charging for A400, A600, A700, and OGiV


5.3 Temperature Compensation of Charging Voltage

Temperature compensation of the charge voltage is necessary when the temperature fluctuates, to avoid increased gassing at higher temperatures.

We recommend the following temperature compensation

  • Standby parallel operation below 150C and above 250C.
  • Cycle operation below 100C and above 300C.
  • Battery charging is not allowed above +500C.
  • When charging the battery below +50C substantially longer recharge times must be expected, as the chemical reactions are very slow and the charge factor is increased up to 60%.

The individual temperatures within the battery must not vary by more then 30C when installing blocks/cell.


5.4 Recharge Time

tecfig15.tif (169734 bytes)
Fig. 15
Examples of charge current and recharge time
for various states of charge for the A500 series at 20C


5.5 Charge Currents

We recommend the following nominal currents for dryfit batteries

  • Standby-parallel operation: 0.1 to 0.2 A/Ah. resp. 2 . I20 - 4 . I20 (1 . I10 - 2 . I20)
  • Cycle operation: 0.2 to 0.4 A/Ah. resp. 4 . I20 - 8 . I20 (2 . I10 - 4 . I20)
  • Overcharging is to be avoided:
    -by adhering to the IU-characteristic with temperature compensation.
    -by adhering to the recommended charge currents.
    -by limiting the ripple current.
Dryfit batteries are proof against continuous charging in standby parallel operation when the given charge conditions are adhered to.


Section 6: Open Circuit Voltage

The open-circuit voltage potential can only be measured on stored batteries. This means : the open-circuit voltage potential can only be determined after a storage period of at least 2,4 hours and not immediately after charge or discharge. The open-circuit voltage potential depends on the state of charge and the temperature.

tecfig16.tif (164274 bytes)
Fig. 16 Typical open-circuit voltages for fully charged dryfit batteries
in relation to the storage time after recharg


Section 7: Series and Parallel connection
  • dryfit batteries of an equal capacity can be connected as a serial arrangement.
  • Parallel connections of serial arrangements are possible without a network to the batteries of the serial arrangement. It is sufficient to connect together the series connected batteries at the plus and minus connectors. EUROBAT, an association of battery manufacturers and users, recommends a parallel arrangement of a maximum of four strings.
Section 8: Permissible ripple current
  • A 200, A 300, A 400, A 500 The maximum permissible ripple current for cycle operation (charge and discharge) is 0.1 . C20. The maximum allowed ripple current for a 24 Ah battery is, therefore, 2.4 A.
  • Should the batteries be used in FLOAT operation, the maximum ripple current of 0,05 . C20 must not be exceeded. The maximum allowed alternating current for a 24 Ah battery in this case is 1.2 A.
  • A 600, A 700 and 0GiV in standby parallel operation: 5 A/100 Ah.

Permissible ripple current causes warming of the battery. During charging the temperature increase is not to exceed 30C.


Section 9: Application

9.1 Installation and Ventilation

When installed in containers, cabinets, etc. the VDE 0570, Parts 2 and 7, must be adhered to, as hydrogen in a volumetric concentration of more than 4% forms an explosive mixture. dryfit battery gassing is extremely low. The required maximum gas volume of 30 ml per 1 Ah and cell in 30 days for the series A 200, A 400, A 500, A 600 and A 700 in the proposed IEC 896, Part 2 (currently a draft) is adhered to.


9.2 dryfit Battery Transport

Based on tests the following regulations have been specified for new and used dryfit batteries :

Dangerous Goods Regulations for Road Transport (German GGVS) : "dryfit batteries are not classified as dangerous goods"
Dangerous Goods Regulations for Rail Transport (German GGVE) : "dryfit batteries are not classified as dangerous goods"
Dangerous Goods Regulations for Air Transport IATA/DGR: "dryfit batteries are not classified as dangerous goods"
Dangerous Goods Regulations for Sea Transport (German GVV See): "dryfit batteries are classified as dangerous goods, Type 8, UN-NR. 2800. Wet batteries, leakproof"


9.3 Storage

When dryfit batteries are stored fully charged

  • the storage temperature is -,400C to +500C
  • the maximum storage time is 2 years at 200C
  • at a constant storage temperature of 300C recharge is to be carried out after 12 months, at 400C after 6 months.


9.4 Disposal and Recycling

Your old dryfit batteries will be taken back without any problems by the following:

  • Accumulatorenfabrik Sonnenschein GmbH
  • Lead recycling smelters
  • M+H Power Systems Pty. Ltd.

Sonnenschein and the smelters recycle the lead and plastic materials in the batteries.

Batteries are taken back under the following conditions:

  • the batteries are delivered by the stated mode of transport
  • the batteries are packed according to the packing regulations.


Section 10: Service life

The service life for dryfit batteries in constant charge operation, is the period of time after which the battery has only 80% of its nominal capacity C20 i.e. C10. This is valid for discharge at I20 up to UE = 1.75 V/cell i.e. I10 up to UE = 1,8 V/cell at room temperature.

The service life of the battery is an important factor for the standby parallel operation.

The service rife of the battery depends on the temperature and can only be reached if the given charge voltage is adhered to.

The diagrams show the service life in relation to the temperature.

Other parameters with influence on the service life are :

  • charge voltage
  • any deep discharges
  • discharge frequency
  • permissible ripple current


tecfig17.tif (163721 bytes)
Fig. 17 Service life in relation to temperature A200/300.

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Fig. 18 Service life in relation to temperature A400

tecfig19.tif (159990 bytes)
Fig. 19 Service life in relation to temperature A500.

tecfig20.tif (161874 bytes)]
Fig. 20 Service life in relation to temperature A600.

tecfig21.tif (160932 bytes)
Fig. 21 Service life in relation to temperature A700 and OGiV.


Section 11: Cycle Endurance

Apart from the service life, the cycle endurance is also defined. The cycle endurance is applied when the battery is not used in standby parallel operation. Currently, the standard definitions are to be applied according to the following controls:

  • Testing of the cycle according to DIN 43539, Part 5: The test is to be carried out on batteries which have reached their nominal capacity. Discharge is to be carried out with 3.4 . I20 up to UE = 1.7 V/cell. The calculation of the number of cycles is terminated when the discharge time has dropped below 3 hours.
  • Testing of the cycle endurance according to IEC 896, Part 2 The test is to be carried out on batteries which have reached their nominal capacity. The discharge is 2 . I10. Discharge time is 3 hours. A capacity test is to be carried out after each 50 cycles. The test is terminated when the battery has less than 60% of its nominal capacity.

The number of cycles which a battery can perform, depends on the battery construction and the depth of discharge.

The number of cycles a dryfit battery can perform in accordance with the above tests is given in the selection table in section 14.


Section 12: Self - discharge

Dryfit batteries have an extremely low self-discharge. This is a positive characteristic of the gel technology.

tecfig22.tif (162502 bytes)
Fig. 22: Self discharge in relation to temperature for the A600 battery.


Section 13: Internal resistance

The total battery resistance is the accumulation of all internal cell resistances and all connection resistances within the battery. (cf. DIN 40729).

To calculate the RIG total resistance of the battery the following formula is valid at room temperature (20-250C) for a in a fully charged condition.

RiG = n . Ri / Battery capacity in Ah

n: Number of cells (see "Internal Resistance", dryfit selection table section 14).
Ri = Table value (see dryfit selection table section 14).

For example, for A512/6.5:

RiG = 6.57/6.5

RiG = 52.6mOhms

The internal resistance depends on the temperature and the state of charge.

tecfig23.tif (164158 bytes)
Fig. 23: Correction factor K for R in relation to the state of charge and temperature,
for the series A200, A300, A 400 and A500.


Section 14: The dryfit series

14.1.  Dryfit Selection Table


A 200

A 300

A 400

A 500

A 500 C

A 600
A 600 WE*


A 700

Service Life in Years


4 -5







Cycle Durability according to DIN









According to IEC









Self-Discharge (%/day)

< 0. 1

< 0.06

< 0.05

< 0.06

< 0.1

< 0.05

< 0.05

< 0.05

Internal Resistance

< 15 Ah 40


Ri in mOhms . Ah/cell

> 15 Ah 64








FLOAT charge voltage in V/cell

2.30 -

2.30 - 2.35

2.23 - 2.30* *

2.30 - 2.35


2.23 -

2.23 - 2.27

2.23 -

Cycle charge voltage in V/cell

2.35 -

2.35 - 2.40


2.40 - 2.45

2.35 - 2.40




*Series A600 WE: The series A600 is available for horizontal installation as A600WE
** 2.27 V recommended


14.2 Brief Type Description with National and International Classifications

A200 Series

  • Service life : 4 - 5 years
  • Cycle Durability DIN/IEC: 200/400
  • EUROBAT classification :Standard Commercial
  • DIN VDE 01 08, Part 1; Application classification E
  • UL: >>yellow card<< MH 12546

A300 Series

  • Service Life : 4 - 5 years
  • Cycle Durability DIN/IEC: 100/200
  • EUROBAT classification : Standard Commercial
  • DIN VDE 0108, Part 1 ; Application classification E
  • UL: >>yellow card<< MH 12546

A 400 Series

  • Service life : 10 years
  • Cycle Durability DIN/IEC: 100/200
  • EUROBAT classification :High Performance
  • DIN VDE 01 08, Part 1; Application classification Z
  • BP Telekom, TL 6140-3003

A 500 Series

  • Service Life : 6 years
  • Cycle Durability DIN/IEC: 300/600
  • EUROBAT classification : General Purpose
  • Types available with VdS classification
  • DIN VDE 01 08, Part 1; Application classification E and A

A 500 C Series

  • Service life :according to cycles
  • Cycle Durability DIN/IEC400/800
  • EUROBAT classification :none

A 600 / A 600 WE Series

  • Service life :15 - 18 years
  • Cycle Durability DIN/IEC450/900
  • EUROBAT classification :High Integrity
  • UL: >>yellow card<< MH 12546
  • available for horizontal installation (WE)
  • German Lloyd
  • Bureau Veritas

A 700 Series

  • Service Life :12 years
  • Cycle Durability DIN/IEC160/320
  • EUROBAT classification: High Integrity
  • DIN VDE 01 08, Part 1; Application classification Z
  • UL: >>yellow card<< MH 12546
  • German Lloyd
  • Bureau Veritas